Workshop of Madhubani Painting[December 10th,
Madhubani... a traditional art form from India was taught to our enthusiastic students last week.
The workshop was organized by Ms Rajani Shah and the special guests for the event were our very own parents Mrs Madhumita and Mr Digambar Shinde.Mrs Shinde is a freelancer associated with Sakal media and Mr Shinde is working as Senior designer with Tata Consultancy Services
Kids learned how to put the art form on paper and how to use the different brushes for the different strokes for this particular style of art.
A great learning experience and an insight into a different personality of our children.
Grandparents Day[October 3th,
Grandparents hold a very important place in each of our lives.
If we remember our own childhood we fondly remember our own grandparents and the love and care they bestowed upon us.
The culture of joint family is fast depleting in our society and so are the values that go with that system.
We at Trinity believe that these values are something that each of us must follow and cherish.
A small initiative to going back to the roots and celebrating this relationship was made by our very own little ones.
The Little Tinkers joined by grade 1 and 2 put up a gala show for their grandparents on the 31st of October.
The campus saw grandparents proudly coming to the school of their grandchildren who put up dances on old melodies tunes of the grandpa times...
It was a breathtaking show as each tiny one tried to put up their best.
Kudos to the teachers who took extra efforts to see the smile on the faces of grandparents and grandchildren alike.
Trinity Dad's Cricket League Season 1[October 27&28th,
The much awaited “BATTLE OF CRICKET”finally did happen in a very grand way at the Trinity International Grounds on the 27th of October 2018.
The Dads Cricket
League 2018 saw 8 teams all ready to battle for the “LEAGUE CHAMPIONSHIP”
The participating teams were -
1)APL Boys Kondwa.
2)Bhivri Nav Maharashtra Boys.
3)38 Park Majestic.
4)The Lake District Worriers.
5)The Leaf Cool Daddies.
6)The Yewalewadi Panthers.
7)The Majestic Magnum.
8)The Funny ll.
Out of the 8 teams 4 teams went into the semifinals and the semifinal match was held on Sunday 28th October.
The semi final Matches were held between
1) APl Boys Vs Bhivri.
2)38 Park vs the Lake District.
The winner of the coveted title was the Bhivri Nav Maharashtra team.
The Prizes were given away by the Shri Kalyanrao Jadhav, the managing director of the KJEI campus.
All participants were given mementos by the Director Principal Ms Shakuntala Jaisinghani and
The principal of Trinity International School Ms Preeti Sangwan.
The excitement knew no boundaries as the Dads became kids one more time and enjoyed themselves to the fullest on the ground.
Fire safety workshop conducted by the Fire department of Pune[October 26th,
The Trinity International School had a fire safety workshop conducted by the Fire department of Pune.
The students were taught to vacate the building in a safe manner and many tips on how to extinguish a fire were taught to the students by the experts.
The various suits the firefighters wear when they are fighting a fire were also worn and shown to the students.
The high point of the workshop was when the firefighters showed the students the difference nozzles they use to combat fire of different types.
Some senior students were given a chance to be a part of the fire extinguishing demos.
A meaningful learning experience for the students and teachers alike.
The Masretclass and Jam Session By Ehsaan Noorani[October 23th,
Another amazing day at Trinity International !!!
The much awaited Ehsaan Noorani Jam session took underway today.
The students of the school and Junior college and teachers had a mesmerizing time and danced to the glorious tunes of Ehsaan Noorani.
The hall was jam packed as Mr Ehsaan charmed the crowd with his guitar, and his team of musicians played on drums, keyboards and guitar.
The students of Trinity also had a chance to showcase their musical talents in front of the great Mr Noorani.
He was very impressed and so was the co-founder of Torrins Academy Mr Sunil Sundaram who was a part of the event.
A beautiful exposure and a wonderful learning experience was provided by the school to its very deserving students.
A very beautiful morning well spent by all.
PTM II[October 13th,
The second parent teacher meeting for the year 2018 was ushered in with a lot of enthusiasm on the 13th of October.
Parents showed up in huge numbers to attend the same.
The PTM was a platform for parents and teachers to come together for the betterment of their children. Problems and probable solutions were discussed by teachers and parents alike.
Trinity Tinkers' Craft Corridor exhibited art and craft work of Pre primary students. Also, parents of kindergarten stidents were delighted to know about the health benefits of green vegetables from their little ones.
It was a well organized and enthusiastic meeting.
Field Trip to IIT Bombay[October 11th,
Field Trip to National War Memorial[October 5th,
Students and staff of Trinity International School experienced patriotic fervour ........
As an educational institute, raising patriotic citizens is a duty that we owe to our country. Patriotism is the love and respect towards own land. Instilling this feeling in children will make them responsible citizens of tomorrow.
It was a beautiful time down memory lane when the students of Trinity International School visited the National War Memorial on the 5th of October 2018 for a field visit.The students were spell bound to see the different weapons of war and how they are used by the Great Indian Army.
The different medals on display were also something that took their breath away.
In all a beautiful learning experience for the whole school right from grade 1 to grade 10.
It was awesome to see the sparkle in the eyes of kids and many speaking about them serving their Mother India by being in the Army.
Seeds are sown in young minds and someday we will see the harvest.
Ganesh Chathurthi[September 13th,
Trinity Tinkers celebrated Ganesh Chaturthi with pomp and show.
Ganesh Chaturthi is one of the most resplendent festivals celebrated in India, mainly in Maharashtra. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, nationalist and 'The Father of Indian Unrest' as described by the British, was the man behind turning a private, household Ganesh Chaturthi celebration to a gala event.
During freedom struggle, Bal Gangadhar Tilak noticed that Lord Ganesh was considered "the God for everyman" and worshipped by the members belonging to the upper castes and lower castes alike, leaders and followers alike. He popularised Ganesh Chaturthi as a national festival 'to bridge the gap between the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins.'
In 1893, Tilak organised Ganesh Utsav as a social and religious function. It was him who put large hoarding with images of Lord Ganesh in pavilions and the man behind the tradition of immersion of huge Ganesh statues on the tenth day of the festival. The festival served as a meeting place for common people of all castes and communities at a time when public social, political gatherings were banned by the British.
International Literacy Day[September 8th,
Trinity international school celebrated International Literacy Day with a unique concept of ‘Human Library”, to develop Narrative skills.
Narrative skills are all about storytelling and understanding how stories work. Narrative retelling bridges the gap between oral and written language and is important for appropriate reading and writing development.
Students of Grade 9 and 10 had the opportunity to hear a Sci-fi story followed by a QA session with the Author himself. The Science fiction story “Orange Rock” from the Amazon Library was narrated by Ms Shakuntala Jaisinghani and the students exchanged views with the Author Lacerant Plainer through a Skype session.
The students made good use of the opportunity to interact with the author. Their questions reflected their curiosity and interest, and many of them were keen to understand both the creative process of writing, and the physics in the science fiction....The conversation ranged from the origins of the story to the art of writing, from how inspiration works and how science informs the author's imagination.
Successful school-parent partnership is imperative to achieve students' learning goals and transform them into confident personalities. Children tend to have higher self esteem when they get an environment where parents and school , both value and appreciate each other.
To strengthen parent- school bond, Trinity International School invited famous author Manoj Adhyayi , also father of our preschooler Saurabh , on the occasion of International Literacy day.
By passion, Mr Adhyayi is a writer, philosopher and metaphysics enchants him a lot.
He has been an active blogger since 2012 and writes articles for newspapers and blogs for the speaking tree (TOI)
He has authored books like " You are your answer" and " Life and death".
The students enjoyed the interactive session with him and made the most of his presence.
Teachers' Day[September 5th,
Trinity International School believes in unity in diversity and thus believes in celebrating the many festivals in India.
A glimpse of the Dahi handi celebrated at school on the 3rd of September 2018.
Glimpse of CONQUEST 2018[August 28th,
Green Day[August 20th,
Green vegetables and fresh clean fruits,
Peas, spinach and gauva juice.
Mummy says, “Eat them all”.
It makes us healthy, strong and tall.
To help the students understand nutritive value of GREEN vegetable, a vegetable market was set up by Trinity tinkers on account of green day for the Pre-Primary students, on August 23rd .
The market activity provided real life experience to students and they explored the concepts like weight measurement, monetary value of things, communication skills and developed ability to convince others with logic.
Students were also encouraged to eat plenty of fresh green vegetables as these are rich in iron and vitamins. They dressed up like vegetable sellers and vegetables were arranged to create a market scene.
School Director ,Principal, teachers and students were invited to buy vegetables. The students were also sensitized about Ban on Plastic bags and encouraged to us cloth and newspaper bags over plastic bags.
Kids enjoyed the activity thoroughly.
Independence Day[August 15th,
As always the Independence Day was celebrated with great fervor and enthusiastic at Trinity International School.
On the auspicious occasion of the 72nd Independence Day the flag was hoisted by the President of KJEI Shri Kalyanrao Jadhav.
The pomp and festivity continued with children performing a patriotic song on vocals and instruments.
They was a flamboyance of dances as dancers performed on patriotic songs right from grade 1 to grade 10.
A very inspiring message was delivered by the managing director of Trinity International Mr Vinod Jadhav.
A short but an apt message was also shared by the director of Trinity International Ms Shakuntala Jaisinghani.
The principal of Trinity International Preeti Sangwan also delivered a very heart warming message to all which was apt for the occasion.
The students of Trinity also did not stay back.
Inspirational speeches were given by Alshifa Sutar of grade 7, and Sai Shinde of grade 4.
A heartwarming moment was when Ms Mehr Motafram a parent of our school gave a speech and told all how the School has been instrumental in making a change in her own son for the better and in return how we are creating a wonderful society as a school.
In all it was a day spent with children and all who attended going back home feeling more patriotic than ever.
Mom,My Inspirationtion[August 11th,
PTM I:[July 28th,
The first parent teacher meeting of the year 2018-2019 was held on the 28th of July.
PTM’s are important to any school as it gives each parent and teacher to discuss their children with each other without any distraction.
It was interesting to see parents take so much interest in their children for their development.
It was amazing to see pro active parents coming in huge numbers to attend the PTM.
Interhouse Western Music Competition 2018-19:[July 27th,
Music educators feel and have observed that students' involvement in music has a positive impact on other areas of their lives. Musical involvement improves a student’s self-discipline, dexterity, coordination, self-esteem, thinking skills, listening skills, creative abilities and personal expression.
Music improves brain health and function in many ways. It makes you smarter, happier and more productive at any age. Listening is good, playing is even better.
It is a proven fact that musicians have superior working memory, auditory skills, and cognitive flexibility.
With this in mind Trinity International School in collaboration with the very famous Ehasaan Loy from Bollywood music industry have started the TORRINS music academy at their premise.
Under this umbrella the Trinity International School had organized an inter house western music competition.
The four houses that is the Wisdom, Harmony, Integrity, and Peace house participated in the event.
Kids performed on various instruments like the guitar, the synthesizers, djembe, the ghungroos, the duff and the drums.
The chief guests and judges for the event were Ms Shakuntala Jaisinghani the director of Trinity International School and the co founder of the Torrent academy Mr Sunil Sundaram.
It was an eventful day with the trophy going to the Integrity house.
Small but proud steps taken by Trinity International to make a big change.
Field Trip To Post Office For Grade-1:[July 25th,
Trinity International along with Young Concepts India Incorporated had organized a seminar for their senior students to make them more aware about diabetes in young people.
The main speaker for the event was Dr Sandeep Shinde who is a renounced diabetologist. He is an expert in managing all types of endocrine and diabetes related diseases.
It was an interactive session where students ask a lot of questions and were satisfied with answers provided by Dr Shinde.
He stressed on the fact that youth need to indulge in some sport activity every day and follow a balanced diet.
In all an eye opener to our young adults it was.
Number Activity:[July 19th,
Trinity Tinkers have developed an amazing understanding in numeracy skills!! Through playway techniques children begin to develop numeracy
skills at a very early stage these innovative techniques help them to understand numbers, counting and problem solving skills. \
We make learning playful and fun. While playing our children develop all the skills that prepare them for learning Math
Blue Day Celebration:[July 18th,
'Blue is the colour of the sparkling sea,
Blue is the sky that looks down on me.'
Trinity Tinkers celebrated 'Blue Day' on 18th July,2018.
Excitement and enthusiasm was visible everywhere. All children came dressed in different shades and hues of blue.
The theme for the day was "Do your bit ! Save Water." Children decided to take a pledge to save water.Students of Sr.Kg performed a skit .
They shared few ideas on how to reduce water wastage e.g - Close the tap after use, Take short showers etc
It was a learning experience for kids and they enjoyed too.
Making Vegetable Salad:[July 16th,
Joy captures the thrill of true learning- the curiosity, the passion , the collaboration , the connection, the effort, the pride and the sharing.
Based on Joyful learning concept, an EVS project on Vegetable Salads and its importance in our diet was the topic under which, with great enthusiasm,
the Think Room ( class room) of grade II became a platform to do practical work. Students enjoyed making vegetable salad by themselves.They learnt the importance of eating salad and it's nutritional value.
As they all brought different vegetables they learned the concept of sharing and to be social at large... a tasty mix of vegetables nutritional value
and human values indeed!!!!
Variety of Instructional Techniques:[July 11th,
In education, scaffolding refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively towards stronger understanding and ultimately greater independence in the learning process.It also means, to provide contextual support through the use of simplified language, teacher modeling, visuals and graphics, cooperative learning and “hands-on learning".
Kudos to our teachers for being the best mentors to our students and carrying this out extremely well. Kids are experiencing a whole new level of a learning.
Imagination is more important than knowledge:[July 11th,
"Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imaginationembraces the entire world,
stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution."
Today our life skill counselor integrated life skills slot with Mathematics (Shapes Around Us) in grade 2 and the
outcome was FREE FLOW OF IMAGINATION & CREATIVITY.
"What if my face had straight lines only?"
The students started out with running their fingers over their facial features. This helped them in
becoming mindful of the natural shape of the face and building self awareness. They were then asked to reimagine
their faces with straight lines only and bring out their imagination into the drawing sheet given to them. It was
refreshing to see the children cross over the hurdle of confusion (How can my face have straight lines only?!
Show And Tell Celebration :[July 07th,
A chance for children to think 'out of the box' and invite their teachers and classmates to come into little world for a minute or two.
Show & Tell is a chance for our young children to show their "Prized possessions. " Being centre of attention for a couple of minutes will make
them feel special & important. These emotions will make them feel more confident and valued.
Puppets :[July 02th,
Puppets are engaging toys which help to support oral language skills, communication, social and emotional skills. Puppet show also helps the children to learn and understand the world around them through imaginative play. The diligent and creative teachers at Trinity Tinkers showcased an interesting puppet show and took the children to world of imagination.
Mud play:[June 29th,
Mud play is about fun,it
engages all the senses,and should be normal part of outdoor play
Exposure to dirt and germs works to prime a child's immune system to prevent allergies .Yes, it's actually healthy for children to get muddy!
Trinity Tinkers celebrated 'International Mud Day' today with zeal and enthusiasm.
Red Day:[June 22th,
Colours are indeed the smiles of nature....
The 'Red Day' celebration at Trinity Tinkers was a wonderful learning activity which helped children to sort and classify objects based on colours
which reinforced their cognitive skills. It was sparkling day with innocent faces gleaming and reflecting brightness, joy , love & happiness.
Celebrated "International Yoga Day": [June 21th,
Yoga signifies union of individual consiousness with universe counciousness.
Trinity International School celebrated International Yoga Day grandly with the enthusiastic participation of students, parents, faculty and staff.
They performed various yoga postures and asanas including pranayam and meditation. The students were also enlightened on the benefits of yoga,
yogic exercises and recharge the body with cosmic energy and promote self-healing process. It removes negative blocks from the mind and toxins from the body,
helps in attaining focus and concentration that is especially important for the students.
Robofest- an inter school festival, with RoboGenius Academy :
Trinity International School participated in Robofest - an inter school festival, with RoboGenius Academy last week. It was a two days event, on the first day ,the students from different schools were trained on developing programme to operate o Robots.
On the second day, they were given a challenge to programme a robot according to the task assigned. All paricipants had an amazing exposure and learning experience.
Wednesday special assembly by Grade IV & VI: [June 20th,
The Wednesday special assembly was held this week by grade IV and grade VI.The topic for the assembly was yoga.Children taught their peers 2 different aasanas and talked about their benefits.
Beautiful assembly indeed!
Assembly By Grade X: [June 13th,
A very smart Wednesday Special assembly was conducted by grade X students for this week.
The students presented a small skit depicting the smartness of Birbal and how he was able to be witty and please King Akbar.
Well done to them and many more such wonderful things to happen at Trinity International School.
Pre-Primary Orientation Program: [June 09th,
"A parent is a teacher at home and a teacher is a parent in school and the child is the center of our universe.
Under the able guidance of our principal Mrs. Preeti Sangwan, an orientation program was organized by 'Trinity Tinkers', the pre primary section of Trinity International School. The aim was to familiarize the parents, as 'Partners in Progress' with the curriculum, rules and regulations of the school, teaching methodologies and the co-scholastic activities. The event was hosted by the pre primary coordinator Mrs. Priya Mehta. This was followed by a wonderful workshop on good parenting skills by Ms. Nirupama. She discussed with the parents about the various parenting skills. She conducted a quiz, thus inviting active parent participation. She also discussed the correct way to guide the child through the different developmental stages - social, physical and emotional.
Overall, it was a fruitful meeting, and the parents were in high spirits after attending the orientation program.
World Environment Day: [June 05th,
The usage of plastic bags has become a part of life style in the 20th century. People go empty handed to the shops and return with loads of plastic bags.
The concerns of Plastic bags towards the environment are too huge to ignore.
We as a Trinity family understand this and “WANT TO DO SOMETHING CONCRETE ABOUT IT”.
The family at Trinity is all going about pledging to use plastic to the minimum... all have pledged that we are NOT going to use any plastic lunch boxes and water bottles
We are going to use as little or no plastic is our school and its premise.
All at the school had a campaign to see and put off all the plastic that we can avoid into the bins..
WE DO WHAT WE BELIEVE AT TRINITY.
Microsoft School Program: [June 05th,
A wonderful and a very different workshop was conducted by Microsoft at Trinity International School for the teaching staff.
This workshop opened up doors to our teachers where in they got a chance to become a part of the world teaching community at large...
The teachers learned about Microsoft 365 and became a part of the world teaching community.
The portal gives freedom to teachers to share lesson plans, download best worksheets and teaching practices from teachers all over the world. It was taught how teachers can take their students on virtual trips to any place on the planet.
This workshop gave each a chance to nominate themselves to become Microsoft innovative educators. (MIE expert)
They were also taught about a tool by Microsoft called as sway wherein teachers can plan effective and interesting lesson plans in a very short span.
Another wonderful learning experience for our teachers to sharpen their teaching skills...
Six Thinking Hats Workshop: [June 04th,
A concept by Edward de Bono - Six Thinking Hats is a simple, effective parallel thinking process that helps people be more productive, focused, and mindfully involved. A powerful tool to design a way forward.
The main difficulty wirh thinking is confusion. We tey to do too much with at once. Six thinking hats methodolgy allows a thinker to do one thing at a time. Each thinking role is identified with a colored symbolic "thinking hat." By mentally wearing and switching "hats," you can easily focus or redirect thoughts, the conversation, or the meeting.
This new concept was learned by the teachers of Trinity at a wonderful workshop conducted by school Principal.
Team Trinity examined and analysed the new programmes school has planned to initiate, using Six Thinking Hats methodology.
The discussion produced quick, objective and decisive results.
The team is ready to harness , intelligence, experience and information of it's members to reach the right conclusion quickly with creative mindset.
Yet another new beginning at our own Trinity International School.....
Pre-Primary Graduation Day & Annual Prize Distribution Ceremony: [February 24th,
Founder's Day Celebration : [January 24th,
Republic Day Celebration : [January 26th,
Trinity X Mas Carnival: [December 22th,
Pre-Primary Colour of Month Pink: [December 13th,
Children's day: [November 14th,
2017]: Special Assembly organised by TIS Teachers for the students on the occasion of Children's Day Celebration.
M.A.D.D. Talent Hunt: [November 14th,
Grand parents day: [November 10th,
Cookery club made veg fried rice: [November 3th,
DIY Activity-Festoon making: [November 3th,
Halloween day celebration: [October 30th,
Diwali celebration: [October 13th,
Teacher's day celebration: [September 6th,
Mock Fire Drill: [February 17th,
A surprise mock drill was conducted by fire and emergency services wing of Pune Municipal Corporation on Friday at Trinity International School. It was held on February 17th 2017, to check the fire equipments of the school and their preparedness to deal with a fire incident.
During the drill, fire officials told students about the measures to be taken if a fire breaks out. They illustrated various types of fires and precautions to be taken in such cases. The fire fighting team demonstrated how to rescue victims from the spot and showed how to stop the dense fire using water hoses.
The drill was organized to check the fire fighting equipments at schools and aware the students and staff about the rescue operation conducted by the fire department.
Annual Prize Distribution Day: [February 11th,
11th February, 2017; was a day to celebrating success; it was a day when all the Trinitians, along with their parents, came together to felicitate the students who achieved excellence in academics along with other co curricular and extra curricular activities.
Our respected Director Prinicipal, Mrs. Shakuntala Jaisinghani, awarded certificates and gifts to students who had excelled at par in academics. The winners of co-curricular activities such as Mental Math Quiz, Drawing Competition, General Knowledge Quiz and Spell Bee Competition were also awarded and applauded.
It was a day of celebration and commemoration, with students basking in the glory of their success and parents gleaming with pride. It was also a day for the teachers to see the results of their hard work shine in the eyes of the children.
Health Checkup Day: [February 8th,
On 8th of February, 2017, the students of the TRINITY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL participated in a health checkup camp, organized by the school. This was the fitness screening which included dental examination and overall Systemic examination, which looks into respiratory system, cardio vascular system and general condition of each student from Pre-Primary to grade IX. The team of two visiting doctors were- Dr.Shilpa Kulkarni (Dentist) and Dr. Anil Gupta ( General Physician) . Each student was carefully examined and was prescribed with corrective remedies wherever required in her/his health card. Toothpaste samples were distributed to the students.
Founder's Day Celebration: [January 24th,
'Annual Exibition 2016-17, Pune '
On 24th January, 2017, all the Trinitians, along with their Parents celebrated the birthday of our Founder, Respected Mr Kalyan Jadhav, and showered upon him lots of love and good wishes.
On this joyous occasion, the school organized an exhibition for Mr. Kalyan Jadhav, showcasing what the students have learned from their British Council, ISA projects.
ISA (International School Award): The British Council International School Award (ISA)is a
benchmarking scheme that accredits schools as having an outstanding level of support for: Nurturing global citizenship in young people. Enriching teaching and learning.
'Grade I: Flags of the World'
Grade I had learnt about the significance of various flags of the world and represented it by wearing the cultural attire of countries like India, USA, Australia, Afghanistan, UK, Pakistan and Canada. They spoke confidently about the significance of the different flags stating the importance of different colours and symbols used in them.
'Grade II: Festivals of Light'
Grade II had worked on the ISA project, “Festivals of Light”. They leant that apart from Diwali, there are various festivals of light celebrated in different countries, such as, Spain, where it is called Lass Fallas and Thailand, where their festival of lights Loi Krathong. They also displayed a mini version of such celebrations, in the exhibition.
'Grade III: Universal Sign Language'
Grade III learnt and displayed
the varied sign languages that are used for communicating in different countries.
'Grade IV: Mapping Symmetry in the 7 Wonders of the World'
Grade IV had a very interesting mathematical topic, “Mapping Symmetry in the 7 Wonders of the World”, where they learnt about the history and architecture of the Seven Wonders of the World. They displayed through models, symmetry within the Seven Wonders of the World.
'Grade V and VI: World Heritage Sites'
Grade V and VI, together, worked on World Heritage Sites. They had showcased their learning by beautiful charts and presentations on the heritage sites of the world. They also collaborated with the Tathva Internationl School in Japan, Tokyo; wherein, the students from both the schools exchanged their research work through a Skype Session. Tokyo school shared their knowledge on Hiroshima dome and students from Trinity shared their project on Aga Khan Palace. The pictures and video of the Skype session were displayed in the exhibition.
'Grade VII: Rainwater Harvesting'
“Rainwater Harvesting” was the topic taken up by the students of Grade VII. Not only had they created a blog to spread awareness across the globe, but they also showcased their learning with a miniature working model of a Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting System.
'Grade VIII and IX: English Poems on War'
Grade VIII and IX had learnt and researched about the different wars of the world. They displayed through charts, poems and presentations, the various reasons behind all the wars, and how they were similar to each other and explored the unknown facts that lay behind them.